At Electron Dynamics, we have experts in the field of connectivity across various devices, machines, sensors, amongst other connectible devices. We are also breaking strides with the current phenomena in the field of “the internet of things”.
We have an experienced design team with many years of design work around device connectivity in the industry. In the case of a mobile phone for example, from the viewpoint of the user, the experience begins with the speed at which their devices receives data and applications. That speed is a combination of the speed capacity of the modem technology inside the mobile device (which is a fixed speed) and the speed capacity of the infrastructure provided by the network, which is variable. It has been predicted that a compound annual growth rate of 37% for average aggregated device connectivity speed as measured in Mbps through 2015. In other words, the average aggregated device connectivity speed will be four times greater in 2015 than in 2011.
There are several types of connectivity, namely:
The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus is a synchronous serial communication interface used for short distance communication. It is mainly used in embedded systems and the interface was developed by Motorola. SPI devices communicate in full-duplex mode using a master-slave architecture with a single master.
There could be one or more slaves per master. The master device initiates the protocol for reading and writing. Multiple slave devices are supported through selection with individual slave select (SS) lines. Typical applications include sensors, digital cards, amongst other applications.
I2C can be used to connect up to 127 nodes via a bus that only requires two data wires, known as SDA and SCL.
Since the devices need a common ground reference and a power rail the full bus has four wires, two for data and two for power. Sometimes additional lines are added, for example to support interrupts when the state of I2C devices change. In theory the I2C bus can support multiple masters, but most micro-controllers can’t. A master is usually a microcontroller, although it doesn’t have to be. Slaves can be ICs or microcontrollers. In the diagram above a RasPi is a master and there are several slaves: a Digital-to-Analog converter (DAC), an Analog-to-Digital converter (DC), and an Arduino.I2C can be used to control a very wide range of devices. Common examples include
- Digital-to-analogue converters (DACs)
- Analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs)
- LCD displays
- OLED Screens
- Motor drivers
Other types include UART, JTAG, to name a few.